F .
FABER Artisan or workman
FACTOR A buyer/seller employed by a merchant
FACTOR Steward of an estate responsible for rent-collecting [Scotland]
FACTOR Commission salesperson
FAGETTER Person wh o bundled faggots, sold firewood
FAIN Glad, Northwest England
FAKER Photographic assistant who added colour to photos by hand in days before colour film
FANCY-PEARL WORKER Person who made buttons or fancy goods from mother-of-pearl
FANGAST A girl fit for marriage [Norfolk]
FANNER Winnower of grain
FANWRIGHT Person who made and repaired fans or winnowing baskets
FARANDMAN Stranger or traveller, travelling merchant
FARCY or FARCION The farcy, a disease in horses
FARNTICKLES Freckles [North England]
FARREN Half an acre [West England]
FARRIER Non-Commissioned officer responsible for shoeing of horses in a cavalry regiment
FARRIER Shoeing-smith, vet or horse doctor
FARTHING Quarter penny
FARTHING Thirty acres [Cornwall]
FASGUNTIDE Shrove-tide [Norfolk]
FASTENS Shrove Tuesday, or Fastens-Tuesday
FATHER-LAW Father-in-law [West England]
FATHOM Nautical measurement of depth: six feet
FAWKNER Falcon trainer
FEAR-NOTHING MAKER Weaver of special thick woollen cloth known as fear-nought, used for protective clothing, and for the lining of portholes or doors of powder magazines on ships
FEARLOT The eighth part of a bushel
FEATHER-BEATER/FEATHER-DRIVER Person who cleaned feathers
FEATHER-DRESSER Person who cleaned and prepared feathers for sale
FEATHER-WIFE Women who prepared feathers for use
FEATHERMAN Dealer in feathers and plumes
FEEDER Herdsman
FELL MONGER Person who removed hair or wool from hides in leather-making process
FELL MONGER Dealer in hides and skins, especially sheepskins
FELLER Textile worker who laid or felled seams in material
FELLER Tree or wood cutter
FELTER Person in the hat industry
FERE A companion or wife [North England]
FERMERERE Officer who had charge of an infirmary
FERONER or FERRER Ironmonger
FERRER Farrier [North England]
FERRETER Dealer or manufacturer of ferret [silk tape]
FERUR or FERATOR Farrier or blacksmith
FETTLER Machine cleaner in woollen mills
FETTLER Sharpener of a fustian-cutter's knives
FETTLERNeedlemaker who filed a needle to a point
FEU DUTY A perpetual lease, annual payment for use of ground [Scotland]
FEVER Blacksmith
FEWILLER Person who supplied fuel for fires
FEWSTER Saddletree maker
FEWTERER Hound-keeper, person who cared for greyhounds
FEYDUR BEATER Feather beater
FILLER Person who filled bobbins in mills
FINE DRAWER Person employed in tailoring to invisibly repair tears in cloth
FINISHER Person who completed the manufacture of an item
FIREBEATER Person who tended boilers that powered machinery in a cotton mill
FIRKIN Nine gallons
FIRST HANDSilk weaver who owned his own loom, an outworker
FISCERE Fisherman [Anglo-Saxon]
FISH-FAG Fish selling woman [South England]
FITTER A joiner. By 19th century, a person who assembled pieces of machinery
FITTER Coal broker
FITTLE Food, Midlands
FITZ Son of...
FIVES Avives, a disease in horses
FLASHER Skilled worker in the glass industry ]
FLATMAN Navigated a broad flat-bottomed boat used for transport, often in shallow waters. Used in the salt trade
FLAUNER Confectioner
FLAX-WIFE Female spinner
FLAXDRESSER Prepared flax before spinning
FLEET MARRIAGES Quiet, clandestine marriages which were taken by clergymen who were in the Fleet Prison, London, for a fee. Secret weddings to escape the attention of relatives, held from about 1613 until 1753 when they were banned by an act of Parliament
FLEM A farrier's lancet. Flem-stick: a small stick to strike it into the vein
FLESHER Butcher or tanner [Scotland]
FLETCHER Arrowsmith, maker of bows and arrows, especially the person who attached the feather
FLITTING Moving house [Scotland]
FLORENCE Edward III gold florin
FLORIN Silver coin, two shillings
FLUSHERMAN Person who flushed out water pipes
FLUTTERGRUB A field labourer [South England]
FLYCOACHMAN Jobmaster. Driver of a one horse carriage hired by the day
FLYING STATIONER Seller of broadsheets in the street
FLYMAN Cabman, driver of a light vehicle hired out for carriage of passengers
FLYMAN Theatre stage hand
FOAL Assistant to the putters in a coalmine [North]
FOAR or FEUARLandholder, leaseholder [Scotland]
FOGGER Huckster or hawker carrying wares from village to village [Suffolk]
FOGGER Middleman in nail and chain trade
FOGGER Groom or manservant [Wiltshire]
FOGGER Agricultural worker who fed cattle
FOGGER Pettifogger, low-class lawyer
FOGORNER Person who expels people from their dwellings
FOOT Twelve inches
FOOTBOY or FOOTMAN Servant or attendant in livery
FOOTMAIDEN Female servant, waiting maid
FOOTMAN Servant who ran errands
FOOTPADA horseless highwayman
FOOT-POSTLetter carrier or messenger who travelled by foot
FOOT-RULE Twelve inch measure
FOOT STRAIGHTENERPerson who assembled watch and clock dials
FOR-BURTHE Birth-right, or the first born of a family
FORBYE Also, Scotland
FORE-ELDERS Ancestors [North England]
FOREMAN An ancestor
FORESTER Game warden, forest ranger
FORESTER-OF-THE-FEE A person who had a perpetual right of hunting in a forest for some service to the Crown, and after payment of a crown in rent
FORGEMAN Blacksmith or assistant
FORGEMAN Coachsmith
FORKNER Falconer
FORNPECKLES Freckles [Lancashire]
FOSS or FOSSE Ditch, especially moat around a fortification
FOSSETMAKER Person who made faucets for ale-casks
FOSSICK Root around for something, Southwest England
FOU A bushel, Scotland
FOUD Magistrate or bailiff [Orkney]
FOWER Sweeper or street cleaner
FRAMER Constructor of house frames
FRAMEWORKER KNITTER [FWK] Machineworker who made hosiery. Earlier done with a handloom
FRANKELEIN A large freeholder. Originally the son or descendant of a villein who had become rich, but came to refer to small farmers and country gentlemen of considerable means.
FRATCH To argue, Northwest England
FREEDMAN Person released from slavery
FREEHOLDER Holder of land, including voting rights
FREEMAN Full citizen free of various dues and obligations
FREEMAN In London, a freeman of a city guild, who had applied for freedom of the city and could be addressed `citizen.'
FREEMASON Stonecutter
FRESER Friezemaker [rough plaster]
FRESHWATER MAN Freshwater sailor
FRIMBLES Nervous or uncertain, Northwest England
FRIPPERER Buyer and seller of old clothing
FRISEUR Hairdresser
FRIZOGGLED Freezing cold, Midlands
FRUITERER Fruitseller
FRUITESTERE Fruitseller [female]
FUGLEMAN Person who leads the cheering of a crowd or mob
FULKER Pawnbroker or usurer
FULLER `Tucker and walker.' In Southeast England, a person who used fuller's earth [a type of clay] to thicken and cleanse cloth in water
FUNAMBULIST Tightrope walker
FURBISHER Person who polished and cleaned metal or armour
FURENDEL The fourth part of a bushel of corn
FURER An official who burnt false measures
FURLONG 220 yards
FURNOUR Baker [Latin] Still used in Kent
FURRIER Dealer, maker or dresser of furs
FUSTERER Person who made pack-saddles
FUSTIAN WEAVER Corduroy maker
G .
GABELER Tax collector
GADGIE An old man, sometimes an old woman, Northeast England
GAEL Scottish Highlander [Scotland]
GAFFER Foreman of workers, or an old man
GAGER Tax collector of liquor taxes
GAIN Handy/skilful, Midlands
GALLEYTo frighten, alarm. Southwest England
GALLON Four quarts
GALLUS Mischievous, Scotland
GALOPIN Kitchen-boy [Scotland]
GALVANISER Iron worker who coats metal with zinc to stop rusting
GAME KEEPER Person who was attached to an estate to protect game and livestock from poachers
GANGER Foreman, from 1850
GANNEKER Tavern keeper
GANSEY or GANZIE Woolly jumper, after Guernsey, Channel Islands, Northeast England
GARTHMAN Yardman or herdsman
GARTHMAN Person charged with maintenance of a garth, a dam used to catch fish. Owner or worker of a fish trap
GATER Watchman
GATHERERGlassworker who prepared molten glass for the blower
GATHERER'S BOY Person who sheltered gatherer's face from furnace's heat with a shovel
GATWARD Goat keeper
GAUGER Customs official who measured the capacity of imported barrels of liquor so as to calculate customs duty
GAVEL Mown corn raked into rows ready for carting
GAVELLER A harvest worker [female], Suffolk
GEBUR Tenant farmer
GEET Very, Northeast England
GELDER Animal/horse castrator
GEOMETER Person skilled in geometry
GERUND GRINDER Latin teacher
GEY Very, Scotland
GIGGLE-GAGGLE, or GINNEL Passage between houses, Northwest England
GILDER Person who worked with application of gold leaf
GILL Quarter pint
GILLIE or GHILLIEAttendant/gamekeeper [Scotland]
GIMLER Machinist who made gimp [a type of card]
GINOUR Engineer
GIRDLER Person who made girdles and belts of leather, mainly for the Army
GIRTHOXTER Girthweaver
GIVE BACKWORD Let down, go back on one's word, mid North England
GIVE OVER Stop it, be quiet, Mid North England
GLAIKIT Slow-witted, gauche, Scotland
GLAIR or GLAUR Mud, Northeast England
GLAKY Slow-witted, Northeast England
GLASS COACHMAN Jobmaster. Driver of two horse carriage hired for the day
GLASSMAN Dealers in glassware
GLAZIER Glasscutter, or an installer of window glass
GLEN Valley, Scotland
GNASH To hurry, Scotland
GOAT CARRIAGE MAN Driver of a small passenger carriage
GOLDSMITH Gold worker, or a banker
GOB Mouth, Mid North England
GOMBEEN Usury [Ireland]
GOODMAN Person who ranked between a freeman and a gentleman
GORZEMAN Dealer in gorse or broom
GOSSIP Godfather, godmother or close friend. Later a woman friend who attended a birth.
GOWK Idiot, fool, Scotland
GRAFFER Notary or scrivener
GRAIN 1/24 Pennyweight
GRANGER Farm bailiff
GRAVE'S DISEASE Goitre. Also called Derbyshire Neck
GRAVER Carver, sculptor or engraver of images
GRAVER Dockside worker who cleaned ship bottoms by burning and tarring
GRAZIER Person who pastures, raises cattle
GREAVE or GRIEVE Bailiff, foreman, sheriff
GREENSMITH Worker in copper or latten [an alloy or thin sheet of metal]
GREENWICH BARBER Person who sold soil collected from Greenwich pits
GREET To cry, Scotland
GRIEVE Farm overseer [Scotland]
GRIFFIN New European arrival in India, a newcomer
GRINDER Cutlery and knife sharpener. Also in metal, glass and toolmaking trades.
GRINDER Worker using a carding machine [textile industry]
GRINDER Private tutor
GRIPPE Influenza
GROAT Silver fourpence used from the 14th to 17th centuries
GROCKLE Tourist or visitor, Southwest England
GROSS Twelve dozen
GROUNDLINGS Spectators in Elizabethan theatre who stood around the stage at ground level because they couldn't afford seats in the galleries. A few might even have sat on the edge of the stage.
GROUNDSEL & CHICKWEED SELLER Person who sold common weeds for the feeding of song-birds
GRUBBISH Hungry, Southwest England
GUARDIAN Person appointed by the court who takes care of the rights of a minor
GUIDSIRE or GUDESIR Grandfather [Scotland]
GUINEA 21 Shillings
GUINEA PIG Person whose services were used for the fee of a guinea
GUMMER Person who maintained old saws
GUTCHER or GOWCHER Grandfather, relation, cousin [Scotland]
GYP College servant who served undergraduates
HAAR Thick damp mist coming in off the sea, Scotland
HABERDASHER Dealer in small articles such as ribbons, needles, etc
HABERDASHER Dealer in hats, shirts, accessories, especially in mens' clothing
HACKER Wood cutter, or a person who made or used hoes, axes or other cutting implements
HACKLER Person who worked in the linen industry separating the course part of flax or hemp from the soft with an instrument called a hackle.
HACKNEY MAN Renter of horses and carriages
HACKY, MANKY or LOPPY Dirty, mid North England
HADAWAY Go away, get lost. Also an expression of disbelief, Northeast England
HAIR SEATING MERCHANT Person who dealt in horse-hair stuffing used in upholstery work
HAIRWEAVER or HAIRMAN Person who weaved cloth made up of or containing horsehair
HALBERT CARRIER Soldier or halberier armed with a halberd, a weapon combining a spear and a battleaxe, often for ceremonial purposes.
HALFMARK Old coin, 6/8 pence
HALOGEN Salt producer
HAMMERER Hammersmith
HANDSELLER Street vendor
HANDWOMAN Female attendant or midwife
HANSTER Guild freeman
HAPPENS Maybe, Mid North England
HARLOT Male servant, or attendant in the 14th century
HARMAN or HARMER BECK Police constable
HATCHELER or HATCHLER Person who cleaned, combed or carded flax
HATTER Maker of hats, or a hat-seller
HAVER To waffle, Scotland
HAWKER Falconer, or pedlar, or streetseller
HAYMONGER Hay dealer
HAYSEL Hay harvest
HAYTIER Hay bundler
HAYWARD Person who produced a hay field
HAYWARD or HEDGELOOKER Warden, a person who inspected hedges and fences of a parish and impounded stray animals
HEADSMAN Executioner
HEALD KNITTER Person who operated a machine producing a jersey type fabric
HECK MAKER Person who made part of a spinning machine which led the yarn to the reels
HECTARE One hundred Ares, France
HEDGER Person who trimmed hedges
HEELMAKER Person who made shoe heels
HEIRS PORTIONERS Women succeeding to heritage jointly where there are no male heirs
HELLIER or HILLIER Person who slated or tiled roofs
HELPER-UP In Durham mining industry, a boy who helped the adult workers
HEMLSMAN Steersman of a vessel
HEMMER Stitcher or sewer
HEMP HECKLER Hackler or flax dresser
HENCHMAN Horseman or groom, or a squire, or a chief attendant to a Highland Chief
HENSMAN Horseman or groom
HEWER A miner who cut stone or coal, a face worker
HIDE 120 acres
HIGGLER Person who haggles or bargains for goods, like a cadger
HIGH SHERIFF Senior to deputy sheriffs, the top official
HIND Household servant or domestic, or a skilled farm labourer, in Scotland
HINNY Term of endearment. Cf. `Honey,' Northeast England
HINXMAN Henchman
HIRED MAN Hired for garden, stable or farm work
HIVER Apiarist/Beekeeper
HOASTMAN Member of a guild
HOBBLER Horse soldier
HOBBLER Person employed to tow a boat on rivers or canals
HOCKTIDE Part of Easter festivities from medieval England. The second Monday and Tuesday after Easter Sunday were set aside, on Monday, the women capturing men and releasing them on payment of a fine, and on Tuesday, the men capturing women. Fines were donated to the church. Possibly recalled victory over the Danes. Hence to `hock off' or pawn something.
HOD Brickman's labourer
HODMAN Mason's labourer
HOGGARD Pig drover
HOGREEVE Medieval parish officer
HOGSHEAD A large cask, France
HOLLOWARE WORKER Person who made ornaments or teapots in a pottery [not flatware], or someone making tin trunks or boxes
HOLLOWARE A trade name for hollow articles of iron such as pots and kettles
HOOKER Reaper, 16th century, or a person who worked in the textile industry in the 19th century, operating a machine which flattened fabric in workable lengths
HOOPER Person who made hoops for barrels or casks
HORKEY Harvest frolic to celebrate the gathering of the harvest
HORNER Person who made spoons or combs from horn, or musical horns
HORSE CAPPER Dealer in worthless horses
HORSE COPER Horse dealer
HORSE COURSER Person who owned race horses
HORSE HAIR CURLER Person who dressed horse hair used in upholstery
HORSE LEECH Horse vet or farrier, also cowleech
HORSE MARINE Person who handled barges on canals where horses weren't used
HOSIER Dealer in stockings, socks, gloves etc
HOSIER Owner of frame-work knitting machines hired out for production of stockings
HOSTLER Groom or stableman, or a person who worked on railway locomotives
HOTPRESSER Person who pressed paper or textile between glazed boards and hot metal plates
HOUSE JOINER Person who built house frames
HOVELLER Longshoreman
HOWDY, HOWDIE or HOWDY WIFEMidwife [Scotland]
HOY To throw, Northeast England
HOYMANPerson who carried goods and passengers by small coastal vessel or sloop
HUCKSTER A person, sometimes female, who sold ale in the street, or a seller or small goods in a shop or kiosk
HUISSHER A door attendant or usher
HUMPER Meat porter/carrier
HURDLEMAN or HURDLER Person who made hedges of wattled framework fencing in the south of England
HURRIERS Young girls, 5 to 18 years of age, employed as coal drawers in a mine
HUSBANDMAN Tenant farmer
HUSH SHOP KEEPER Person who brewed and sold unlicensed beer
HYEM Home, Northeast England
I .
ICEMAN Person who sold or delivered ice
ISLESMAN Inhabitant of the Hebrides
INCH Unit of measurement
INDENTURED SERVANT A person comitted to working for someone for a fixed number of years, most often between four and seven years, either of free will or not, in exchange for the chance to emigrate or similar. A position without any notable rights.
INDWELLER Inhabitant, resident
INFEFTMENT A man was infeft when put into possession of heritable property
INFIRMARIAN Person who managed an infirmary
INTENDENT Person who directed public or government business
IRON FOUNDER Person who founds or casts iron
IRON MASTER An owner or manager of an iron foundry
IRON MONGER Or feroner, a dealer in ironwares
IRON SMITH Blacksmith
IRONSIDES Cavalrymen under Oliver Cromwell, because of their armour, and strict discipline
ITCH Scabies
IVORY WORKERS Makers of ivory objects such as piano keys, billiard balls, combs and ornaments
JACK A young male assistant, a sailor or lumberjack
JACK-FRAME TENTER Person who operated a jack-frame in the cotton industry ued to twist the thread
JACK-SMITH Maker of lifting machinery
JACOBITES Supporters of the House of Stuart in line for the throne of Britain, after James II fled to France in 1688.
JACOBUS Gold coin, James I
JAGGER Carrier or pedlar of fish
JAGGER In Derbyshire in the 19th century, a young lad put in charge of a train of trucks [a jag] in a coal mine
JAGGER Person in charge of a horse lugging iron ore to a smelter
JAGGER A uniformed message boy employed by London businesses from 1899
JAKES-FARMER Person who emptied cesspools
JANNOCK Reasonably good, Northwest England
JAPANNER Varnisher who used a lacquering process invented in Japan
JARVEY Cab driver
JED Dead, Midlands
JETH Death, Midlands
JERQUER Custom house officer responsible for inspecting ships
JERSEY COMBER Person who worked in woollen manufacturing, jersey being wool which has been combed, but not spun
JOB MASTER or JOB COACHMANOr job master, a driver of a coach hired longterm to the gentry or nobility
JOBBER Pieceworker. Bought in quantity to sell on to others
JOBLING GARDENER Person employed casually
JOE or JOYEY A small silver coin, fourpence, from 1836
JOINER Skilled carpenter
JOINTUREEstate settled on wife for time she survives husband
JONGLEUR Travelling minstrel
JOURNEYMAN Craftsman who had served an apprenticeship. A master in a trade
JOUSTER Female fish hawker, usually travelled by foot from town to town
K .
KAILWIFE Cabbage seller. In Scotland, a scold
KAKY Sticky, Southwest England
KEAWER Sit, Northwest England
KEDGER Fisherman
KEEKER Person responsible for quality control in a coal mine. In Scotland, a mine inspector
KEELER OR KEELMAN Bargemen, from `keel,' a flat bottomed boat
KEMPSTER Person who combed wool
KEN Know, Scotland
KERNE Irish foot soldier
KIDDIER Person who dealt in young goats, or who dealt in skins
KILNER A limeburner, person in charge of a kiln
KIRKTON Village, Scotland
KISSER Person who made cuishes/cuisses [plate armour which protected the thigh] and high armour
KNACKER Person who dealt in old horses or dead animals. Also maker of harnesses and saddles
KNAPPERS Person who dressed and shaped flints, mainly to make flintlocks for British Army weaponry
KNELLER OR KNULLER Chimney sweep who touted for business door to door
KNIFE BOY Scullery lad
KNIGHT A lord's retainer who owes military service in exchange for his estate
KNOCKER-UP Person who went round a town awaking the early shift of mill and factory workers by knocking on their windows. Northern England
KNOCKKNOBBLER Person who caught dogs
KNOLLER Person who rang bells
KNOT 6080 feet

Definitions Index:


Definitions: A-B

Definitions: C-E

Definitions: L-R

Definitions: S-Z

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Updated February 12th 2004